LCS Publication Details
Publication Title: Anchor-Free Distributed Localization in Sensor Netowrks
Publication Author: Priyantha, Nissanka B.
Additional Authors: Hari Balakrishnan, Erik Demaine, Seth Teller
LCS Document Number: MIT-LCS-TR-892
Publication Date: 4-15-2003
LCS Group: Computer Graphics
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Many sensor network applications require that each node's sensor stream be annotated with its physical location in some common coordinate system. Manual measurement and configuration methods for obtaining location don't scale and are error-prone, and equipping sensors with GPS is often expensive and does not work in indoor and urban deployments. Sensor networks can therefore benefit from a self-configuring method where nodes cooperate with each other, estimate local distances to their neighbors, and converge to a consistent coordinate assignment. This paper describes a fully decentralized algorithm called {\em AFL} (Anchor-Free Localization) where nodes start from a random initial coordinate assignment and converge to a consistent solution using only local node interactions. The key idea in AFL is {\em fold-freedom}, where nodes first configure into a topology that resembles a scaled and unfolded version of the true configuration, and then run a force-based relaxation procedure. We show using extensive simulations under a variety of network sizes, node densities, and distance estimation errors that our algorithm is superior to previously proposed methods that incrementally compute the coordinates of nodes in the network, in terms of its ability to compute correct coordinates under a wider variety of conditions and its robustness to measurement errors.
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